By Roger W. Bowen
This can be a brief, readable, and incisive examine of the corrosive results of corruption in a single of the world's significant liberal democracies. It explores the disconnect among democratic rule and undemocratic practices in Japan because the moment international struggle, with distinct recognition to the corrupt practices of assorted top ministers and the ensuing experience of political cynicism and powerlessness one of the common public.
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189. sixteen. Masumi, C o n t e m p o r a r y P o l i t i c s i n J a p a n , p. 186. 17. Ibid. , p. a hundred thirty. 18. Allinson, "Tanaka Kakuei; William Nester, "Japan's Recruit Scandal"; Yayama, "The Recruit Scandal" 19. overseas Broadcast info carrier (FBIS), 23 August 1993. NOUS r o CI I AT I M\S -1 AND r> \1\ bankruptcy four. again to the long run 1 . N e w Y o r ok T i m e s , three July 1994. 2. JP0LL, N i ok o n okay e i z . a i S h i m b u n , 19 December 1995. three. JPOLL, A s a h i S h i m b u n , 22 December 1994. four. Ishida and Krauss, "Japanese Democracy in Perspective," in Ishida and Krauss, eds. D e m o c r a c y i n J a p a n , p. three three 7 . five. Ibid. , p. 333. 6. Pempel, ed. , U n c o m m o n D e m o c r a c i e s , p. 28. 7. Williams, J a p a n : B e y o n d t h e E n d o f H i s t o r y , p. 107. eight. Ibid. , p. 34. nine. Ibid. , p. 29. 10. Ibid. , p. forty seven. eleven. McCormack and Sugimoto, "Introduction: Democracy in Japan," in McCormack and Sugimoto, eds. , D e m o c r a c y i n C o n t e m p o r a r y J a p a n , pp. 11-12. 12. Pharr, L o s i n g F a c e , p. 26. thirteen. Interview with the writer, in Tokyo, 12 January 1993. 14. U. S. -Japan discussion board, Edwin O. Reischauer Institute, 22 March 1996. 15. van Wolferen, E n i g m a o f J a p a n e s e P o w e r . sixteen. Elshtain, D e m o c r a c y o n T r i a l , p. three. 17. Dahl, O n D e m o c r a c y , bankruptcy thirteen. 18. Johnson, M I T l a n d t h e J a p a n e s e M i r a c l e , p. 316. 19. This definition/distinction is Theodore Lowi's and looks all through his preface to Andrei Markovits and Mark Silverstein, eds. , T h e P o l i t i c s o f S c a n d a l , p. vii. 20. Miyamoto Masafuni, "Money, Ethics, and Politics in Japan," United StatesJapan undertaking, June 1991, p. 22. 21. Peter DeLeon, T h i n ok i n g A b o u t P o l i t i c a l C o r r u p t i o n , p. 25. 22. Suzanne Garment, S c a n d a l : T h e C u l t u r e o f M i s t r u s t . 23. DeLeon, T h i n ok i n g A b o u t P o l i t i c a l C o r r u p t i o n , p. 33. 24. A s a h i S h i m b u n , 20 M a y 25. 26. 27. 28. 1989. Ozawa, B l u e p r i n t f o r a N e w J a p a n , p. sixty eight. Quoted in A s a h i S h i m b u n , nine August 1993; additionally see JEI, three September 1993. JEI, five November 1993. Mitchell, P o l i t i c a l B r i b e r y i n J a p a n . bankruptcy five. The structure and Democracy 1. Fukunaga, "The Party's Over," p. five. 2. Dahl, O n D e m o c r a c y , p. 38. three. Ibid. , p. forty five. four. Ibid. , p. eighty five. five. T h e C o n s t i t u t i o n o f J a p a n a n d C r i m i n a l S t a t u t e s (Tokyo: Ministry of Justice, 1958). 6. Upham, L a w a n d S o c i a l C h a n g e , p. 218. 7. F a r E a s t e r n E c o n o m i c R e v i e w , 23 March 2000. eight. Igarashi Futaba, "Forced to Confess," in McCormack and Sugimoto, eds. , D e m o c r a c y i n C o n t e m p o r a r y J a p a n , pp. 195-214. 124 N O I L S TO CHAFFERS five A N D 6 nine. JPOLL, 22 March 1998. 10. JPOLL, N i h o n ok e i z a i S h i m b u n , 27 A p r i l 1997 (fiftieth anniversary); Y o m i u r i S h i m b u n , 22 March 1998. eleven. JPOLL, Y o m i u r i S h i m b u n , , 24 March 1990. 12. JPOLL, fomwn S h i m b u n , 30 March 1994. thirteen. JPOLL, Kwu'wri S h i m b u n , 22 March 1998.